Author Archives: aenriquez

What are Lateral Collateral Ligament Injury Symptoms that need Surgery?

By  aenriquez  published  December 27, 2017

Knee Ligament InjuryLateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury often requires reconstructive surgery. LCL reconstruction is necessary to avoid rotational instability of the knee and cartilage damage. The extent of damage can affect the outcome of surgery. Certain symptoms exist that make surgery necessary. Our orthopedic surgeons are able to reattach the ligament with sutures or reconstruct it using donor tissue.

The lateral collateral ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. The LCL is outside of the knee, and it connects the femur (thigh bone) to the fibula (lower leg bone). The LCL’s main function is to avoid varus stress across the knee (buckling outward). Together with the popliteofibular ligament, the joint capsule, and the popliteus tendon, these structures form the PLC complex, which gives you external rotational stability.

 

LCL Injury and Symptoms

Lateral collateral ligament injury symptoms vary from person-to-person. Injuries to the LCL and posterior lateral corner occur from a rotational force across the knee. A contact injury is a direct blow to the inside of the knee, whereas a non-contact injury is caused from hyperextension stress. The symptoms of LCL injury include:

  • Swelling and tenderness along the outside of the knee
  • Pain that can be mild to moderate
  • Feeling that the knee will give way under stress
  • Numbness or weakness of the foot related to the peroneal nerve, which is near the ligament stretched during injury

 

Can you Walk with a Torn LCL?

A torn lateral collateral ligament can produce severe pain and limit movement, depending on the severity of the injury. However, some people can walk following an injury or tear to the LCL. The doctor will grade the tear based on symptoms. A careful eye is needed to diagnose a posterolateral and lateral injury. The doctor will check for:

  • Ecchymosis and skin abrasions on the side of injury
  • Pain on palpation
  • Difficulty ambulating
  • Loss of normal knee movement

Diagnosis and grading of the tear are confirmed using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. An MRI has a 90% accuracy for showing tears of the posterolateral corner and ligaments. To isolate the LCL, the doctor will apply stress during flexion and compare the knee to the other one. Signs that the knee requires surgery include a positive prone “dial” sign, problems with foot eversion and inversion, and severe tearing found during arthroscopy.

LCL Surgery for Tears and Injury

The lateral collateral ligament does not heal as well as the medial collateral ligament. For a minor tear, non-surgical treatment is used (bracing, rest, and ice). For high-grade acute tears, the ligament must be surgically reattached to the femur or fibula, depending on the situation. Surgical management includes open reconstruction using an allograft (donor material) or autograft (from the patient). The mini-open surgery involves a tiny incision and use of special tools and a camera to repair the ligament. The ends can be sewed together in certain cases where the ligament is torn into two pieces.

For a ruptured ligament, the surgeon will evaluate the situ1ation and make a surgical plan. Be sure to discuss all options with the orthopedic specialist and inquire about alternative therapies. When surgery is required, expect to have 4-12 weeks of recovery, which involves working with a physical therapist to regain strength and function of the knee.

Resources
King AH, Krych AJ, Prince MR, Pareek A, Stuart MJ, Levy BA. Surgical Outcomes of Medial Versus Lateral Multiligament-Injured, Dislocated Knees. Arthroscopy. 2016 Sep;32(9):1814-9. 
Yuuki A, Muneta T, Ohara T, Sekiya I, Koga H. Associated lateral/medial knee instability and its relevant factors in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees. J Orthop Sci. 2016 Nov 19. pii: S0949-2658(16)30217-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jos.2016.10.009.
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When do you Need a Bankart Repair?

By  aenriquez  published  December 17, 2017

Painful Shoulder InjuryA Bankart lesion is a common shoulder injury. This type of shoulder injury often requires Bankart repair. This lesion is when the anterior and inferior portion of the labrum (band of cartilage) is torn away from the glenoid (portion of the joint socket. Bankart repair recovery ranges from six to nine weeks, and the procedure can be extensive, depending on the extent of the injury.

The shoulder joint is a combination of many joints that work together. The glenohumeral joint is where the humerus (upper arm bone) attaches to the scapula (shoulder blade) body. The area where the scapula meets the humerus is called the glenoid fossa. Along with this structure is the labrum, which is a tough band of cartilage. The role of the labrum is to deepen the socket to allow greater congruence between these structures.

 

Bankart Repair Success Rate

A Bankart lesion often occurs along with anterior shoulder dislocation. The shoulder may be continuously moved forward or anteriorly. The Bankart lesion can lead to further shoulder joint damage or injury to other areas of the shoulder. Bankart lesion repair is a surgery used to reconnect the torn labrum to the glenoid fossa, which repairs and stabilizes the joint to prevent further dislocations.

The most common surgical technique for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability is the arthroscopic Bankart repair or the open repair method. In a study evaluating the outcomes of these procedures, researchers reviewed 28 clinical trials. They also reviewed outcome measures, pain scores, dislocation rate, and other problems. The estimated re-dislocation rate was 15% following arthroscopic repair and only 7% following the open Bankart repair.

 

Bankart Repair Recovery

The rehabilitation process following a Bankart repair begins almost immediately. Within the first few days after surgery, passive range of motion starts through physical therapy. The physical therapist and doctor discuss what moves and measures to take for rapid recovery. A sling is only prescribed for use during showering and dressing changes. No internal rotation is allowed for several weeks. Other therapies used for pain control are massage and electrical stimulation.

For the first four weeks after the Bankart repair, the therapist focuses on helping you regain as much range of motion as possible. During this time, the shoulder strength will also improve and shoulder pain should decrease. After four weeks, the focus is on regaining shoulder strength and function. The patient must continue to work with the physical therapist to regain full function and range of motion of the shoulder.

 

Bankart Repair Protocol

Regardless of how the labrum was torn, the surgeon will work with you to decide on the best possible treatment. For many patients, Bankart tears are successfully treated with anti-inflammatory measures, rest, physical therapy, and activity modification. When conservative measures fail to restore function, the doctor may suggest Bankart repair. Labral repair involves re-anchoring, suturing, and/or trimming away torn pieces of cartilage. The procedure is most often performed arthroscopically, and most patients go home the same day as the surgery.

 

The time it takes to recover after a Bankart repair varies from person-to-person. It typically takes 4-6 months for full recovery. For some patients, it can take a full year to full recovery. People with desk jobs must take1-2 weeks off from work. For those who lift and do labor type jobs, plan on being out of work for up to 6 months. Postoperatively, you will see the doctor in 5-10 days, and physical therapy usually begins soon after your procedure. You can use ice 3-6 times each day for 20-minute intervals for pain and swelling and must wear a sling for the first 2 weeks.

 

Resources
Rollick NC, Ono Y, Kurji HM, et al. (2017). Long-term outcomes of the Bankart and Latarjet repairs: a systematic review. Ortho Surg, 8, 97-105.
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What is the Difference between Reverse Shoulder Replacement and Conventional Shoulder Replacement?

By  aenriquez  published  December 13, 2017

A shoulder replacement is used to replace the shoulder socket with a high-density metal or plastic cup. The upper part of the arm is fitted with a meal ball to allow the shoulder natural function. Two options for replacing a damaged joint is the conventional (traditional) shoulder replacement and the reverse shoulder replacement. Shoulder surgery started in the United States in the mid-1950s, and it was first use for severe shoulder fractures. Around 23,000 Americans have shoulder surgery each year.

 

Shoulder Replacement SurgeryWho Needs Shoulder Replacement Surgery?

Certain conditions and factors increase your risk for shoulder replacement surgery. These include:

  • Osteoarthritis is the most common reason for shoulder replacement surgery. A type of wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis usually affects older people. Over time, the shoulder joint becomes painful and stiff.
  • A severe shoulder fracture is a common reason for a shoulder replacement procedure. When the head of the upper arm bone is shattered, the blood flow is interrupted.
  • Patients with long-standing rotator cuff tear can develop cuff tear arthropathy.
  • Finally, avascular necrosis leads to lack of blood flow to the shoulder, which can lead to humeral head death.

 

Reverse Shoulder Replacement VS. Conventional Shoulder Replacement

When there is significant damage to the rotator cuff and deterioration of the shoulder’s normal structure, a reverse shoulder replacement is the best option. With this procedure, the ball and socket are positioned in the opposite positions. The metal ball is attached to the shoulder, and the socket component is placed on the upper portion of the humerus (upper arm bone).

With the traditional shoulder replacement, the metal ball is attached to the upper arm bone, and the plastic socket is attached to the shoulder bone. The surgery is highly technical, and each case is treated uniquely. The implants are smoothed using special tools to fit your body, and the surgeon carefully assesses each patient individually.

 

Reverse Shoulder Replacement Rehab

A careful and well-planned rehabilitation program is crucial to the success of shoulder replacement. You are started on gentle physical therapy the day of or after your procedure. You will wear an arm sling for the first several weeks after surgery, but start using the arm in a few days, and then only at night for 4-6 weeks. Most patients are performing activities of daily living (dressing, eating, grooming) around 2 weeks post-surgery.

The physical therapist will meet with you 2-4 times each week to learn exercises for flexibility, function, and strength. You should avoid placing your arm in an extreme position, such as behind your body, for at least 6 weeks. In addition, you cannot do heavy lifting or sports for 8-12 weeks. Be sure to not overuse the joint, which may result in severe motion limitations.

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Reduce the Ongoing Risk of Arthritis – The Importance of Healing Damaged Knee Ligaments

By  aenriquez  published  December 6, 2017

Ongoing Risk of ArthritisAs the largest and perhaps most important joint in the body, the knee joint is an easy one to injury. Through twisting or moving awkwardly, there can be a strain on the joint and even if overusing, this can create knee pain. The knee joint takes a great deal of pressure and weight-bearing and this, along with natural aging are all likely causes of joint problems. Mild strains are likely where the tissues of the knee are stretched but minor aches and pains are unlikely to need medical assistance. Protecting, resting and using ice to relieve any inflammation is wise but ensuring flexibility is maintained and good muscular strength is present around the knee joint will help in a preventative manner. During recovery from any sprains, it’s useful to keep the leg elevated as much as is possible.

It is wise to take preventive measures to knee joint health because a severe injury could lead to a greater risk of ligament issues or, even arthritis in the long term:

  • Take a measured approach to increasing activity levels
  • Wear good fitting sports shoes
  • Warm up prior to exercising and stretch as part of the cool down process
  • Try low-impact exercises which will not injure the knee joints

Any injury to the knee joint could be costly. Damage to the joint will certainly affect movement, flexibility and, once weakened, it is likely that the individual will suffer from future pain or a reduction of mobility. According to Dr. Mininder Kocher, an orthopedics professor at Harvard Medical School, the potential to develop arthritis in the knee joint following a tear to a tendon or ligament is more than 50 percent. Therefore, treatment and due consideration to the health of the joint is paramount. Arthritis is very common and pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joint are typical.

The knee is a modified hinge joint which enables extension and flexion. It also enables external and internal rotation to a certain degree. There are three compartments; the patella (kneecap) the patellar groove on the front of the femur and the medial and lateral tibiofemoral articulations which connect the femur to the tibia. The joint capsule contains synovial membrane and fluid.

Knee joint pain can be considerable and where the severe injury occurs to the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) perhaps a severe sprain or if torn, the individual will experience stiffness, swelling, pain on the outside of the knee and a weakness in the joint. Partial LCL injuries may not demonstrate many symptoms. The LCL is one of four ligaments to help stabilize the joint but, this is the most common of LCL injuries.

It is easy to injure the LCL:

  • Over-stretching or over-use
  • Hyperextension of the knee
  • Twisting movements or a sudden change of direction

Injuries are graded accordingly. A grade 1 LCL sprain means that the ligament did not tear although there is the risk of further injury. A grade 11 LCL sprain means that there is partial tearing to the ligament and some symptoms will be experienced. When a grade 111 LCL sprain occurs, the ligament will have torn completely and there may be bleeding beneath the skin. If all the pain fibers are torn at the same time, there will be little to no pain.

Recovery – depending on the grade of injury may take up to four months. Minor injuries take much less healing time. Certainly, physiotherapy treatments will accelerate the healing process via massage, joint exercises, and electrical modalities. They will also guide the way that the knee ligament fibers heal. This can also help to reduce the potential to tear this ligament again. An MRI may be used for diagnostic purposes to be sure that there are no other combination injuries. Knee surgery may be required especially where there is a combination of injuries. Rehabilitation thereafter will focus on being able to increase strength to the joint and to restore the full motion of the knee. This will also help to reduce the risk of arthritis.

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Healing and Recovery for Shoulder Dislocations and Lesions

By  aenriquez  published  November 29, 2017

Recovery for Shoulder Dislocations The shoulder joint is extremely mobile enabling the upper arm to move in most directions with ease but, this also makes it an unstable joint and easy to injure. When a dislocation occurs, the pain can be significant and when the shoulder is severely injured, the nerves and tissues around the joint become damaged, resulting in ongoing weakness.

It is relatively easy to dislocate the shoulder joint:

  • Falling – in particular, landing directly on the shoulder on a hard surface.
  • Direct injury to the shoulder
  • Falling but the brunt of the weight is directed through an outstretched hand.
  • A sharp twist on the arm

Within the shoulder joint, the humerus head sits in the glenoid fossa, a shallow extension of the scapula, and, because of the shallowness of this area, the structures around the joint must maintain stability.  The labrum extends from the glenoid fossa and enables a deeper vessel for the head of the humerus. The tissues surrounding the joint also help to provide stability with tendons and rotator cuff muscles providing protection. When the head of the humerus is removed from its position in the socket, it is dislocated, and the type of dislocation is described by the positioning of where it is. Most dislocations are anterior dislocations – approximately 95%. This simply means that the humeral head moves in front of the joint. Posterior dislocations move towards the shoulder blade.

When the injury first happens, the shoulder can be immobilized by placing the arm in a sling and it can also be useful to apply an ice pack to the shoulder area. It is advisable to seek medical care so that a diagnosis can be made, and treatment given to repair the dislocated shoulder. The restricted movement to the upper arm and shoulder area and even some deformation of the shoulder is likely if it is dislocated. If the upper arm bone comes out of the shoulder socket, the force of this could tear the labrum, a ligament, causing a bankart lesion. It is common with dislocations to the shoulders and most connected to the instability of this joint. Initially, a doctor would be concerned with joint relocation and pain management, but to treat fully, they need to understand the circumstances of the injury and whether any dislocation has happened previously. Muscles spasms are likely and there will be various levels of pain.  Surgery, by way of a bankart repair, may be necessary.

The labrum – which is essentially a fibrous ring located within the shoulder socket, can be repaired following a small incision which enables the specialist to view the damage via a tiny camera. The damaged labrum and any other ligaments are re-attached and then, tightened using sutures or anchors. Surgery takes between 1.5 hours and 2.5 hours and a regional block are used to help numb the area. There is usually an overnight stay in the hospital, but the stitches must stay in place for up to 14-days.

Following surgery, the orthopedic surgeon may provide antibiotics and pain medication to ease pain and discomfort but also, as a preventative measure to prevent infection setting in. Ice packs are often recommended to help with any pain experienced. Physical therapy is also recommended during the recovery process to increase mobility. It is possible to recover completely from a shoulder dislocation although recovery may take some time, certainly, there are considerations to be made and older patients and those with diabetes could have a higher hospital admission rate.

 

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How Long Does It Take To Recover From A Broken Femur?

By  aenriquez  published  November 22, 2017

Recover From A Broken FemurA femur fracture is a crack, break or crush injury to the thigh bone. Smaller, simpler fractures of the femur do not typically require surgery. However, others that completely break the bone, cause the bone to be crushed or displaced need immediate surgery.

Symptoms of a femur fracture

A fracture in the thigh bone can bring about the following symptoms:

  • Inability to stand or move the leg
  • Swelling in the hip region
  • Bleeding from an open wound
  • Deformity of the thigh bone region
  • Hematoma
  • Thigh muscle spasms
  • Tingling or numbness in the leg

Diagnosing the condition

This is a serious injury that is usually diagnosed by a physician. The physician will look for symptoms of a fracture mentioned above along with the help of an X-ray or CT scan.

Based on the nature of the injury, treatment may involve immediate admission to the hospital for surgery or extensive treatment in a rehabilitation facility.

Recovery times

Because the femur is so strong, it often takes a lot of force to break it.

  • The cause is usually some type of high energy collisions such as a car or motorcycle accident.
  • A severe sports injury could also have the effect for athletes of young people.
  • Even a low force incident such as a fall can cause a broken femur in individuals with weak bones.
  • In the elderly, broken femur may be caused by a slip or fall.

Most people who receive specialized treatment for a femur fracture are admitted in a long-term nursing or rehabilitation facility.

Full recovery can take anywhere from 12 weeks to 12 months. Yet, many patients can start walking much earlier with the help of a physical therapist.

In case of surgery, recovery times can vary based on the following considerations:

  • Timing of surgery will depend on if the skin around the fracture is broken or not. Open fractures expose the injury site to the environment and need to be treated immediately.
  • External fixation requires metal screws or pins to be placed into the bone. For patients who need temporary stability before the final surgery, this can add to the recovery times.
  • Intramedullary nailing means inserting a specially designed metal rod to keep the nail and bone in proper position during healing.

How is physical therapy helpful?

Physical therapists design individual treatment plans for every patient. The program is devised to limit broken femur complications and includes exercises that help the patients resume a normal level of activity.

Physical therapy can be helpful by addressing the following issues after injury or surgery:

  • Reduction in pain levels by using heat or ice therapy
  • Resuming motion in the hip, leg and back with exercise and stretching
  • Improving strength with exercise to tone and firm muscles
  • Stabilizing balance using weights, resistance bands or other devices
  • Regaining walking ability
  • Speed up healing
  • Return to daily activities by deciding on recovery goals and the safest methods to achieve them
  • Prevent future re-injury by engineering a home exercise program to strengthen and stretch muscles around the injured area
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Can Knee Cartilage Repair Without Surgery?

By  aenriquez  published  November 16, 2017

Knee cartilage repairCan knee cartilage repair without surgery? Cartilage is essential for the free and painless movement of any joint. A common injury to the knee is to the cartilage in the joint. Cartilage – often referred to as hyaline cartilage – in the knee is soft and spongy and has a number of functions. Firstly, it acts as a shock absorber, absorbing pressure and stopping bone on bone contact during jumping walking and running. Secondly, it maintains the synovial fluid (this is the medical term for the fluid within the joint) within the joint with the right concentrations of salts and other substances. Finally, it provides a smooth surface for joint movement to occur on. By having a smooth surface and stopping bone on bone contact (called eburnation) the joint is able to move freely and without pain. As such, when this cartilage is damaged, pain and an inability to move the joint can occur. This can come on slowly, in the case of osteoarthritis (which is due to long-term wear and tear on the joint) or suddenly, as in the case of a meniscus injury from a twisting motion in sports like Football or Tennis. Either way, the cartilage is often repaired using surgery – but this is associated with a number of risks and is not always ideal for older patients. So can knee cartilage repair without surgery?

One exciting new prospect is regenerative medicine. This stem cell therapy could cause cartilage regeneration. By taking knee cartilage regeneration supplements, patients avoid length and risky surgeries that can actually make the situation worse! There are a number of examples of regenerative medicine for knee cartilage including platelet-rich plasma therapy (whereby somebodies blood without the red blood cells) is given, Bone marrow-derived stem cell injections (as the name suggests, stem cells are taken from bone marrow), Amniotic derived stem cell injections (here stem cells are taken from the amniotic fluid that a baby is surrounded by in the mother’s womb). In platelet-rich plasma therapy, for example, all that is needed is a sample of the patients’ blood. After the platelets are sported out the doctor injects the liquid into the patient painful joint. This is much simpler than a lengthy surgical procedure where patients often have to stay in the hospital to recover. These therapies have been shown to be beneficial in smaller studies for a number of years now. Currently, larger scale studies are underway with promising results. In the future perhaps surgeries to repair cartilage (commonly in the knee but also the elbow, shoulder and other joints) may be a thing of the past!

As we have seen there are options for knee cartilage repair that do NOT involve risky surgery. Regenerative medicine could be the breakthrough many doctors have been waiting for as it is associated with so few risks and has so many benefits.

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Being Managed by One of The Best for a Bicycle Knee Injury

By  aenriquez  published  November 13, 2017

Bicycle Knee InjurykneeOne of the worst orthopedic pathologies one can experience includes a bicycle knee injury. The reason for this is because not only are there three potential bones that can fracture, but numerous another anatomy such as ligaments, tendons, muscles, and soft tissue can be damaged as well. What makes a bicycle knee injury such a potentially problematic trauma is that due to the velocity that an affected individual falls at, this can result in high impact injuries that can involve lots of tissue loss.

Patients who experience severe injuries due to the trauma may end up receiving orthopedic and reconstructive surgeries for the bone and tissue damage sustained. Fractures may include those of the femur (upper leg), patella (knee cap), and/or the tibia and even then fibula (lower leg bones).

Ligament injuries may include those of the collateral ligaments that stabilize the sides of the knee, or the cruciate ligaments which are the support structures inside the knee. If these cruciate ligaments are torn then surgical interventions include either repairing the injured anatomy or replacement of these ligaments with either a donor ligament from the upper leg (graft) or with a synthetic graft if a donor ligament is not appropriate enough.

In order to have the best possible outcomes following such an injury, one will need to be managed by one of the best orthopedic surgeons who specialize in managing such injuries.

One Of The Best  

One of the best orthopedic surgeons specializing in the management of knee injuries is Dr. Sumit Dewanjee, MD, who is based at FXRX in Phoenix, AZ.

Dr. Dewanjee is a Board Certified and Fellowship Trained Orthopedic Surgeon with specialty training in knee surgery to manage injuries, diseases, and disorders affecting this particular joint. The therapies that he is highly competent in performing include the following:

  • Arthroscopy of the knee which entails making small surgical incisions and using small instruments to visualize the inside of the knee and manage any possible problems. Major pathologies such as the mentioned cruciate ligament tears are managed via arthroscopic surgery to improve the recovery time of the patient, as well as to help reduce the risk of any possible complications. Other pathologies such as a tear in the meniscus (cartilage) of the knee are managed this way, too.
  • Partial and total knee replacement surgery which is performed on damaged and severely degenerated knee joints where conservative therapies are no longer helpful or effective.
  • Regeneration of cartilage is performed when there are isolated areas of the knee where the cartilage has worn down, but the patient is not yet a candidate for a total or partial knee replacement. Here, certain procedures, which can only be performed by specialized surgeons such as Dr. Dewanjee, are done which help to stimulate the growth of the missing cartilage in the area where it is needed.
  • Treating arthritis of the knee can be performed by injecting certain medication in the knee joint. The administration of a hyaluronic acid, which is a synthetic type of synovial fluid that is normally found in the knee joints, can only be performed by specialist orthopedic surgeons.
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What is a Shoulder Labral Repair?

By  aenriquez  published  November 8, 2017

Shoulder Labral repairThis injury is common in the news as it keeps professionals athletes out of action for a long time. In 2017 Hyun-jin Ryu of the Dodgers, Andrew Luck of the Indianapolis Colts and Jimmy Nelson of the Milwaukee Brewers all spent extended periods of time watching from the sidelines as a result of a shoulder labral tear. But it’s not just professional athletes that are sidelined by the injury and many people need to undergo what is known as Arthroscopic Labral Repair of the Shoulder or SLAP for short.

Many people suffer from shoulder pain, either brought on suddenly by falling on the shoulder or an outstretched hand or slowly and over time by repetitive strain. Many of these injuries are painful because they cause damage to the labrum of the shoulder joint. The labrum is a portion of soft and fibrous tissue that sits in the glenoid (this is the area of the shoulder joint that joins the bone of the upper arm called the humerus with the shoulder blade and the collarbone). This labrum has a number of functions. Firstly, it allows the joint to move freely and easily without the burns rubbing together (which can be painful). It also acts as a sponge, absorbing shocks taken to the joint. Patients with damage the labrum experience pain when lifting the shoulder and they often have a decrease in the range of movement they are able to achieve. This can be very disabling as the shoulder joint is in constant use in day to day life.

How are should labral tears repaired?

This type of injury often requires surgery to fully recover. The surgery is done arthroscopically to reduce the risk of infection and to provide a faster healing time. Arthroscopic surgery refers to a procedure that is done with a tiny camera instead of opening the entire joint up. This means a much smaller cut is made into the shoulder joint and allows healing to occur a lot faster. The surgeon will then repair the shoulder using small instruments and the small camera inside the shoulder.

After the surgery is complete the shoulder will need to be placed in a sling so it can heal for three-six weeks. During this time the patient is told to perform a number of passive exercises (meaning they get somebody else to move their arm and do not do it under their own power). After the sling is removed the patient will be told to do a number of exercises every day to restore proper muscle power and tone. This is done before the patient returns to strenuous activities like sports.

In some individuals who play sports at a high level the repair is unsuccessful and they may experience some pain or loss of performance for years after. However, on a day to day activities carried out by most patients, an Arthroscopic Labrum repair of the shoulder is a highly successful procedure.

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What are Some Torn Ligament in Knee Symptoms?

By  aenriquez  published  October 27, 2017

There are four ligaments in the knee out of which the lateral collateral ligament is crucial for providing stability. Injury to this ligament is a very common occurrence that can affect optimal knee functioning. As such, it becomes important for athletes and others to be aware of some notable torn ligament in knee symptoms.

What happens in an LCL injury?

The lateral collateral ligament or LCL runs along the outside of the knee joint. Any partial or complete tear of the ligament can seriously impair movement and result in disability in more severe cases.

Depending on the nature of the injury, LCL injuries can be graded into the following categories:

Grade I injuries: Only a minimal amount of fibers get torn resulting in some pain and the individual can still utilize full functioning of the knee.

Grade II injuries: These injuries involve a greater amount of fiber tearing and impair knee function more severely.

Grade III injuries: These serious injuries result in rupturing all the fibers in the knee. The knee becomes severely destabilized and knee mobility/ function is significantly reduced. Grade III injuries may also lead to other complications in the knee area.

torn ligament in knee symptoms to check

Symptoms of an LCL injury

The symptoms of a torn ligament in the knee can range from being very mild to extremely severe. Symptoms are dictated by the severity of the sprain or if the ligament gets torn completely. While mild sprains may not present any noticeable symptoms, partial or complete tears can result in the following:

  • Swelling of the knee
  • Stiffness of knee joint
  • Soreness or pain on the outside of the knee
  • Instability of knee joint
  • Reduced mobility in the area

Swollen knee treatment

Occasionally an LCL injury may happen due to strenuous activity when a lot of pressure is placed on this ligament. Possible scenarios could be a sudden shift in movement putting too much weight on the knee or extending it too far.

In the case of minor injuries, the individual may still be able to pursue regular activity but may experience some stiffness and swelling in the knee. Since both grade I and grade II injuries to the LCL do not involve complete ligament tearing, they may be treated successfully using non-operative techniques.

Typical treatment options will include rest, compression, and cryotherapy with the aim of minimizing the pain and the associated swelling. Injury recovery accessories like a knee brace may be recommended.

Other options include taking pain relievers, keeping the knee elevated and limiting physical activity until the associated discomfort goes away.

Therapy will also involve a range of motion exercises to prevent joint stiffness and to keep the ligaments mobile. For such minor injuries, complete recovery time may take up to six weeks.

Severe LCL injuries, on the other hand, result in a complete tear and require surgical intervention to reconstruct the damaged ligament.

However, surgery is not usually recommended for treating LCL injuries in isolation. The LCL in these cases is often injured along with other ligaments in the knee to necessitate a surgical procedure.

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