The Knee Joint
The knee is the largest bone joint in the body that allows you to run, walk, stand, sit, bend your legs, pivot, swivel and more. The knee joint consists of bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons, all working together. Three bones – the tibia (shinbone), the femur (thighbone) and the patella (kneecap) come together at the knee joint.
Knee injuries are complicated because they can be the result of damage or injury to any of the several parts that make up the knee. It is also important to understand that the knee functions between two very mobile joints – the hip and the foot. Injury to the hip or foot can also affect the mobility of the knee.
With age, the strain on our knees increases and pain and discomfort become common complaints. However, the pain may also result from injury or an underlying condition, apart from aging. An experienced orthopedic doctor or surgeon can make an accurate diagnosis of the cause of knee pain and treat it.
Depending on its location, different problems can be responsible for knee pain.
- Front of the knee – related to kneecap injury or damage
- Inside or medial side of knee – related to medial meniscus tears, MCL injuries, and arthritis
- Outside or lateral side of knee – often caused by lateral meniscus tears, LCL injuries, IT band tendonitis, and arthritis
- Back of knee – due to the collection of fluid, also referred to as a Baker’s Cyst
Shoulder dislocation is a painful injury. It is common among athletes and may result from a fall or other trauma to the joint. Because the shoulder is a highly mobile joint, it is also at risk for easy dislocation.
Shoulder dislocation can be 2 different types –
- partial dislocation or subluxation – caused when the top of the humerus bone is partly out of the socket.
- complete dislocation – when the top of humerus comes completely out of the socket.
The shoulder can dislocate downward, backward or forward.
Symptoms of Shoulder Dislocation
- pain in and around the shoulder joint
- swelling around the shoulder
- shoulder joint stiffness
- weakness and/or numbness in the shoulder
- bruising in the shoulder region
- shoulder instability
Any combination of the above symptoms can mean a dislocated shoulder. It is best to have your shoulder examined by an orthopedic surgeon.
Whether your shoulder dislocation has happened for the first time or it is a repeat injury, it is important to have it diagnose and treated right away. The surgeon will be able to restore the joint into the correct place and provide immediate relief. This process is known as a closed reduction. Afterwards, your doctor may refer you to a physical therapist in order to help the joint become stronger and prevent future re-injury.
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons around the shoulder joint. They keep the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) secure in the shoulder socket. A shoulder injury can affect the rotator cuff, causing a dull ache in the shoulder, which may worsen when sleep on the affected side.
Rotator Cuff Tears
A rotator cuff tear is a common injury, in sports such as baseball, or in jobs such as cleaning windows. It can occur due to age-related wear and tear or overuse and repetitive motions. Your rotator cuff may also get injured if you fall on your arm or lift something heavy.
A rotator cuff tears can be partial (when the tendon is frayed) or complete (the tendon is pulled off the bone).
Rotator Cuff Tear Symptoms
A rotator cuff tear may present as –
- trouble raising your arm
- pain with certain arm movements
- pain when you lie on the affected side
- weakness in the shoulder
- inability to lift things
- clicking or popping sounds with arm movement
Left untreated, a torn rotator cuff can lead to a frozen shoulder or arthritis which is harder to treat.
Treatment for Rotator Cuff Tears
The orthopedic doctor would initially recommend –
- physical therapy to strengthen shoulder muscles stronger
- anti-inflammatory drugs to help with pain and swelling
Surgery may be required in some cases, especially if you have a complete tear. Surgery can be done to stitch together the torn area or reattach the tendon to the bone.
There are three types of rotator cuff surgery:
- Arthroscopic or minimally invasive surgery
- Open surgery
- Mini-Open surgery that uses both arthroscopic and open methods
If you were surprised at your Tennis elbow diagnosis or think that it happens only to Tennis players, this isn’t always the case. While Tennis elbow is certainly common among tennis players, it is essentially an overuse injury.
Tennis elbow is often the result of activities that use the same muscle group, such as gardening, painting, even using a screwdriver and of course, playing tennis.
Tennis elbow is characterized by soreness or pain on the outer side of the elbow. It occurs when the tendons connecting the muscles of the forearm to the elbow are injured or damaged. The pain may also radiate from the arm to the wrist. Left untreated, the injury may even cause pain when you are doing simple things like turning a key. Tennis elbow is formally referred to as ‘lateral epicondylitis’.
To diagnose tennis elbow, the doctor will examine your elbow and ask questions about the level of pain, any injuries and your daily activities. A diagnostic imaging test, such as MRI or X-ray, may be done. Once a diagnosis is made, your doctor would design a treatment plan for your condition or injury.
The first line of treatment is often anti-inflammatory medication and physical therapy. However, if your pain doesn’t ease with conservative treatment, the doctor may prescribe surgery followed by rehabilitation. You can return to activity gradually, as advised by your doctor.