Category Archives: Shoulder Treatment

Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

By  aenriquez  published  May 18, 2018

Physical therapy involves the use of certain maneuvers and exercises to restore your strength, activity, and motion following an injury, illness, or surgery. Physical therapists are trained professionals who identify deficiencies in the biomechanics of the body, they and teach stretches and techniques to address problems that can be managed. Physical therapists also use specialized equipment to address your condition and injury.

dealing with pain with Physical Therapy

Stretching Tight Joints and Muscles

A portion of physical therapy deals with stretching muscles and joints. Stretching is vital in maintaining good range of motion with the joints and for flexibility of muscles. If you suffer from tight muscles and/or stiff joints, normal activities can be affected. This includes climbing stairs, reaching overhead for items, and going through usual daily living. With proper stretching, these functions are preserved. After surgery, scar tissue forms and soft tissue will contract. To ensure that scar formation does not affect rehabilitation, it is important to go through regular stretching routines.

Strengthening the Body with Exercises

Exercises are used for strengthening, which helps with rehabilitation to improve muscle function and joint stability. The goal of improving strength aids in improved range of motion and increased endurance. Post-operative exercises should be guided by the physical therapist to ensure you do not injure the surgical area. These exercises are used in back, neck, knee, and shoulder injuries.

Core Strengthening and Stability

One of the most recent physical therapy developments involve the emphasis on core stability and strengthening. The core of the body should be solid and strong. A weak core puts you at risk for injury and chronic overuse syndromes. Core strengthening emphasizes the muscles of the pelvis and back. Some exercises programs are great for core stability, especially Pilates.

Application of Ice and Heat

Ice and heat are used for cooling down and warming up joints and muscles. Warmth also increases blood flow to the injured or healing region, and ice will decrease swelling through vasoconstriction. These mechanisms are very important for the therapeutic process.

Ultrasound

Using high-frequency sound waves, ultrasound therapy is used to stimulate the deep tissues in the body. The ultrasound probe is passed over your body, and deep tissues are stimulated by the vibration of a sound wave. Ultrasound will lead to warming and increased blood flow to the afflicted body tissues.

Electrical Stimulation

Electrical stimulation is a type of therapy used to pass electric current over an affected area. Nerve condition within a region can be altered which affects muscle contractility. Blood flow to the deep tissues is increased through electrical stimulation, and patients experience diminished pain after this treatment.

Reasons for Physical Therapy

The main reasons you should have physical therapy include:

To promote healing – This is used to minimized scar tissue of the knee or shoulder following surgery, and to improve blood flow to the injured area.

To regain mobility – Physical therapy is particularly important for the knees, hips, and upper extremities. It will help prevent joint stiffening and get you moving quicker.

To enjoy a faster recovery – Rehabilitation is used to help your body recover more quickly that if you do not receive physical therapy.

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Giving Golfers a New Lease of Life

By  aenriquez  published  April 1, 2018

Golfers a New Lease of LifeGolf is played by millions of people all around the globe. For many, playing two or three rounds of golf a week is the perfect exercise, but, it does come with some health risks. The shoulder joints are particularly at risk of injury due to the full range of motion that is required.

Here are some typical shoulders injuries that golfers suffer from.

 

  • AC joint pain
  • Instability
  • Rotator cuff tears

 

Golf is unique in the way that the shoulders are expected to perform. Each shoulder has a different task to enable the full swing. As a result, there are different types of injuries to each shoulder but, one painful condition that occurs in both shoulders is a rotator cuff tear.

 

The rotator cuff is four tendons which support the upper arm and help with the rotating movement essential in golf. It does not affect every golfer in the same way. Tendonitis is where the tendons become swollen and painful and you are likely to experience the pain of this when raising your arm. In addition, bursitis is another common problem when the arm is raised.  This is where fluid builds up over the tendons below the rotator cuff. This is a very painful condition and would make playing the game an impossibility.

 

So, what can be done?

 

Well, if you are a keen golfer, and your arm hurts when you raise it, there is the potential for a rotator cuff problem. These injuries can affect all golfers but as it is a repetitive type condition then, those that play more frequently are more likely to suffer from it.

 

The arthroscopic cuff repair may provide a solution. This technique is popular as it is the least disruptive cosmetically. There is also a significant reduction in scarring compared to other invasive treatments and less chance for an infection to set in. It is also the one treatment that enables you to get back playing golf in the shortest recovery time.

 

The procedure requires a camera to be inserted into the shoulder so that the tendons can be seen properly. Then a fluid is passed in, so the medical expert can view any damage. The repair usually requires some stitches to hold the tendon in place.

 

If you are a golf enthusiast, the last thing you will want is to miss out on the game for an extended period and this treatment helps you to get back onto the course fairly quickly. Some golfers have even expressed their delight in that they can provide a better swing action thereafter. This is likely to be because their swing was originally deficient due to the early stages of the injury. In some cases, it can be of benefit to ask a golf professional to examine your swing to make sure there are no obvious biomechanical errors in the movement. This may prevent further injuries. There is a lot that can be done to avoid this type of problem in the first place and to support this, here is some additional reading, which may help in the future.

 

If you are based in or are visiting Arizona and would like to find out more about how this procedure works or even book an appointment. Then check out this link to one of Phoenix’s leading healthcare specialists. Don’t let a rotator cuff problem be your handicap.

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Common Shoulder Injuries and Conditions

By  aenriquez  published  March 21, 2018

Whether an injury occurs from paddling a canoe, throwing a ball, or lifting boxes, it does occur. We rely on our shoulders to do a number of activities, and with use of a shoulder, injury can occur. Normally, the shoulder has a wide range of motion, more than any other joint of the body. However, because it is this flexible, it is also not very stable and prone to injury.

The shoulder is made of two main bones: the shoulder blade (scapula) and the ball of the upper arm bone (humerus/humeral head). The humeral head is round, and it fits into the scapular socket. There are several muscles and ligaments that surround the shoulder, and they are called the rotator cuff. Tendons also connect the bones to the shoulder’s surrounding muscles. Injury to any or several of these shoulder structures can produce pain and disability.

Shoulder Instability and Separation

Shoulder instability affects mostly athletes and young people, but it can occur at any age. When ligaments and muscles are stretched beyond normal limits, the shoulder becomes unstable. This condition is often part of growth and development, and shoulders can stiffen and tighten with age. For athletes, shoulder instability is caused by repetitive motions, such as pitching or throwing. These motions put tremendous force on the shoulder, and the ligaments stretch out over time.

After years of having instability, or with persistent use, shoulder separation can occur. When the ligaments that hold the clavicle to the acromion bone of the scapula tear, it is considered separately. Sprains can also occur during a fall onto an outstretched hand/arm. A sprain causes severe pain and a misshapen shoulder, which also contributes to disability and decreased shoulder mobility.

Treatment for shoulder instability and sprain can involve medications, rest, and physical therapy. A sling is often used to limit movement while the shoulder heals. With severe instability and shoulder separation, surgery is often required to remedy the problem. Your treatment plan will be determined by the orthopedic specialist, who will collaborate with other professionals to develop the best course of therapy for you.

Shoulder Dislocation

When the ligaments that hold shoulder bones together tear, and they can no longer support the joint, the shoulder is dislocated. A shoulder dislocation can occur due to a fall onto the shoulder, a fall onto an outstretched hand, or from violent twisting. The main symptom of shoulder dislocation is a pain, and the discomfort becomes worse with movement.

To treat a shoulder dislocation, you should apply ice immediately and go see a doctor. Within 15 minutes of the injury, the joint becomes sore and painful. A dislocated shoulder often can be re-set using gentle traction, where the bones are put back in place. When the shoulder moves out of socket repeatedly, it is called recurrent instability, which requires surgery for correction.

Rotator Cuff Tear

A rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that support the shoulder. They allow a person to raise and rotate the arm. These muscles are attached to bones by tendons, which allow the muscle to strategically move the arm. When the tendons tear, the upper arm bone cannot move easily in the socket, which means you cannot move it away from the body in an upward motion. As people age, and they become less active, tendons start to lose strength and degenerate. Most rotator cuff injuries occur in older adults or middle-aged individuals.

The shoulder has a poor blood supply, which makes it harder for the tendons to repair and maintain themselves. Using the arms overhead puts pressure on the rotator cuff tendons, and repetitive movement and stress can lead to shoulder impingement. When the tissue or bone in the shoulder area becomes misaligned and rubs/chafes. The rotator cuff tendons are often injured or torn when someone lifts a heavy object with an extended arm.

Treatment of a rotator cuff tear depends on the severity of the injury. The doctor may recommend resting the extremity, using a sling to support the arm and medications. After the initial injury, swelling and inflammation are controlled with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

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When Is Shoulder Arthroscopy A Better Option Than Open Surgery?

By  aenriquez  published  January 29, 2018

Subacromial decompression is a surgery that treats shoulder impingement syndrome and can be done through an open incision or arthroscopically.

Surgeries such as open decompression or arthroscopy have almost the same results in a reduction in pain ranging in almost 77-90 percent of the patients. The methods to be used are dictated largely by the surgeon’s preferences and the condition of the patient.

Arthroscopic Surgery for wellness

Arthroscopic surgery

A minimal two to three small cuts are made surrounding the shoulder during the surgery. An arthroscope, which is a small viewing device is inserted in the cut. The surgeon can look inside through the camera and check the biceps and joints along with the rotator cuff tendons to any issues that can otherwise be overlooked or go unnoticed in an MRI or an open procedure.

Arthroscopic surgery is generally recommended for people who are young and have a mild impingement in the shoulder. It is done to promote regaining of daily activities. Moderate shoulder impingement refers to pain which hinders daily life activities. It often occurs in individuals around the age of 25 to 40 years old.

When is it not recommended?

It is generally not recommended for people who experience the following:

  • Existing shoulder problem
  • Have a large tear in the rotator cuff which is medically proven as unrepairable. Patients who have such significant injuries can only be treated with open surgeries.
  • Individuals with a flat acromion or tissue inflammation like tendonitis in the rotator cuff, which is not due to shoulder impingement but rather the cause.

Open Surgery

This procedure involves a large incision of about 4-6 cm. It is necessary for patients who have a large rotator cuff tear. In many cases, surgeons recommend open surgeries compared to other options as it allows them access to a large area of injury. On the other hand, however, a large incision increases the chance of infection. Patients who undergo open surgery may have to spend 1-2 nights in the hospital for recovery.

Open Surgery vs Arthroscopic

Open surgeries are for external rotation while arthroscopic procedures are linked with less motion. Open surgery can be performed faster, while arthroscopic procedures require a detail-oriented set of skills.

Many surgeons are comfortable with open surgeries for the latter can be a difficult procedure.  Recovery time varies for both, and in general, takes 3-6 months to fully recover. People may be able to use the affected arm by two weeks of the surgery.

It is reported that people who go through arthroscopic surgery recover faster, and experience less pain during the recovery period. The recovery process involves stretching and exercise that prevents swelling and stiffness. In both cases, a therapist would likely be involved to assist the patient with exercises that promote healing and recovery.

Risks

There are potential risks of both types of surgeries, including:

  • Chronic shoulder pain and stiffness
  • Damage to the nerves or blood vessels
  • Infection  (less risk in arthroscopic compared to open surgery)

 

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When do you Need a Bankart Repair?

By  aenriquez  published  December 17, 2017

Painful Shoulder InjuryA Bankart lesion is a common shoulder injury. This type of shoulder injury often requires Bankart repair. This lesion is when the anterior and inferior portion of the labrum (band of cartilage) is torn away from the glenoid (portion of the joint socket. Bankart repair recovery ranges from six to nine weeks, and the procedure can be extensive, depending on the extent of the injury.

The shoulder joint is a combination of many joints that work together. The glenohumeral joint is where the humerus (upper arm bone) attaches to the scapula (shoulder blade) body. The area where the scapula meets the humerus is called the glenoid fossa. Along with this structure is the labrum, which is a tough band of cartilage. The role of the labrum is to deepen the socket to allow greater congruence between these structures.

 

Bankart Repair Success Rate

A Bankart lesion often occurs along with anterior shoulder dislocation. The shoulder may be continuously moved forward or anteriorly. The Bankart lesion can lead to further shoulder joint damage or injury to other areas of the shoulder. Bankart lesion repair is a surgery used to reconnect the torn labrum to the glenoid fossa, which repairs and stabilizes the joint to prevent further dislocations.

The most common surgical technique for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability is the arthroscopic Bankart repair or the open repair method. In a study evaluating the outcomes of these procedures, researchers reviewed 28 clinical trials. They also reviewed outcome measures, pain scores, dislocation rate, and other problems. The estimated re-dislocation rate was 15% following arthroscopic repair and only 7% following the open Bankart repair.

 

Bankart Repair Recovery

The rehabilitation process following a Bankart repair begins almost immediately. Within the first few days after surgery, passive range of motion starts through physical therapy. The physical therapist and doctor discuss what moves and measures to take for rapid recovery. A sling is only prescribed for use during showering and dressing changes. No internal rotation is allowed for several weeks. Other therapies used for pain control are massage and electrical stimulation.

For the first four weeks after the Bankart repair, the therapist focuses on helping you regain as much range of motion as possible. During this time, the shoulder strength will also improve and shoulder pain should decrease. After four weeks, the focus is on regaining shoulder strength and function. The patient must continue to work with the physical therapist to regain full function and range of motion of the shoulder.

 

Bankart Repair Protocol

Regardless of how the labrum was torn, the surgeon will work with you to decide on the best possible treatment. For many patients, Bankart tears are successfully treated with anti-inflammatory measures, rest, physical therapy, and activity modification. When conservative measures fail to restore function, the doctor may suggest Bankart repair. Labral repair involves re-anchoring, suturing, and/or trimming away torn pieces of cartilage. The procedure is most often performed arthroscopically, and most patients go home the same day as the surgery.

 

The time it takes to recover after a Bankart repair varies from person-to-person. It typically takes 4-6 months for full recovery. For some patients, it can take a full year to full recovery. People with desk jobs must take1-2 weeks off from work. For those who lift and do labor type jobs, plan on being out of work for up to 6 months. Postoperatively, you will see the doctor in 5-10 days, and physical therapy usually begins soon after your procedure. You can use ice 3-6 times each day for 20-minute intervals for pain and swelling and must wear a sling for the first 2 weeks.

 

Resources
Rollick NC, Ono Y, Kurji HM, et al. (2017). Long-term outcomes of the Bankart and Latarjet repairs: a systematic review. Ortho Surg, 8, 97-105.
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What is the Difference between Reverse Shoulder Replacement and Conventional Shoulder Replacement?

By  aenriquez  published  December 13, 2017

A shoulder replacement is used to replace the shoulder socket with a high-density metal or plastic cup. The upper part of the arm is fitted with a meal ball to allow the shoulder natural function. Two options for replacing a damaged joint is the conventional (traditional) shoulder replacement and the reverse shoulder replacement. Shoulder surgery started in the United States in the mid-1950s, and it was first use for severe shoulder fractures. Around 23,000 Americans have shoulder surgery each year.

 

Shoulder Replacement SurgeryWho Needs Shoulder Replacement Surgery?

Certain conditions and factors increase your risk for shoulder replacement surgery. These include:

  • Osteoarthritis is the most common reason for shoulder replacement surgery. A type of wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis usually affects older people. Over time, the shoulder joint becomes painful and stiff.
  • A severe shoulder fracture is a common reason for a shoulder replacement procedure. When the head of the upper arm bone is shattered, the blood flow is interrupted.
  • Patients with long-standing rotator cuff tear can develop cuff tear arthropathy.
  • Finally, avascular necrosis leads to lack of blood flow to the shoulder, which can lead to humeral head death.

 

Reverse Shoulder Replacement VS. Conventional Shoulder Replacement

When there is significant damage to the rotator cuff and deterioration of the shoulder’s normal structure, a reverse shoulder replacement is the best option. With this procedure, the ball and socket are positioned in the opposite positions. The metal ball is attached to the shoulder, and the socket component is placed on the upper portion of the humerus (upper arm bone).

With the traditional shoulder replacement, the metal ball is attached to the upper arm bone, and the plastic socket is attached to the shoulder bone. The surgery is highly technical, and each case is treated uniquely. The implants are smoothed using special tools to fit your body, and the surgeon carefully assesses each patient individually.

 

Reverse Shoulder Replacement Rehab

A careful and well-planned rehabilitation program is crucial to the success of shoulder replacement. You are started on gentle physical therapy the day of or after your procedure. You will wear an arm sling for the first several weeks after surgery, but start using the arm in a few days, and then only at night for 4-6 weeks. Most patients are performing activities of daily living (dressing, eating, grooming) around 2 weeks post-surgery.

The physical therapist will meet with you 2-4 times each week to learn exercises for flexibility, function, and strength. You should avoid placing your arm in an extreme position, such as behind your body, for at least 6 weeks. In addition, you cannot do heavy lifting or sports for 8-12 weeks. Be sure to not overuse the joint, which may result in severe motion limitations.

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Healing and Recovery for Shoulder Dislocations and Lesions

By  aenriquez  published  November 29, 2017

Recovery for Shoulder Dislocations The shoulder joint is extremely mobile enabling the upper arm to move in most directions with ease but, this also makes it an unstable joint and easy to injure. When a dislocation occurs, the pain can be significant and when the shoulder is severely injured, the nerves and tissues around the joint become damaged, resulting in ongoing weakness.

It is relatively easy to dislocate the shoulder joint:

  • Falling – in particular, landing directly on the shoulder on a hard surface.
  • Direct injury to the shoulder
  • Falling but the brunt of the weight is directed through an outstretched hand.
  • A sharp twist on the arm

Within the shoulder joint, the humerus head sits in the glenoid fossa, a shallow extension of the scapula, and, because of the shallowness of this area, the structures around the joint must maintain stability.  The labrum extends from the glenoid fossa and enables a deeper vessel for the head of the humerus. The tissues surrounding the joint also help to provide stability with tendons and rotator cuff muscles providing protection. When the head of the humerus is removed from its position in the socket, it is dislocated, and the type of dislocation is described by the positioning of where it is. Most dislocations are anterior dislocations – approximately 95%. This simply means that the humeral head moves in front of the joint. Posterior dislocations move towards the shoulder blade.

When the injury first happens, the shoulder can be immobilized by placing the arm in a sling and it can also be useful to apply an ice pack to the shoulder area. It is advisable to seek medical care so that a diagnosis can be made, and treatment given to repair the dislocated shoulder. The restricted movement to the upper arm and shoulder area and even some deformation of the shoulder is likely if it is dislocated. If the upper arm bone comes out of the shoulder socket, the force of this could tear the labrum, a ligament, causing a bankart lesion. It is common with dislocations to the shoulders and most connected to the instability of this joint. Initially, a doctor would be concerned with joint relocation and pain management, but to treat fully, they need to understand the circumstances of the injury and whether any dislocation has happened previously. Muscles spasms are likely and there will be various levels of pain.  Surgery, by way of a bankart repair, may be necessary.

The labrum – which is essentially a fibrous ring located within the shoulder socket, can be repaired following a small incision which enables the specialist to view the damage via a tiny camera. The damaged labrum and any other ligaments are re-attached and then, tightened using sutures or anchors. Surgery takes between 1.5 hours and 2.5 hours and a regional block are used to help numb the area. There is usually an overnight stay in the hospital, but the stitches must stay in place for up to 14-days.

Following surgery, the orthopedic surgeon may provide antibiotics and pain medication to ease pain and discomfort but also, as a preventative measure to prevent infection setting in. Ice packs are often recommended to help with any pain experienced. Physical therapy is also recommended during the recovery process to increase mobility. It is possible to recover completely from a shoulder dislocation although recovery may take some time, certainly, there are considerations to be made and older patients and those with diabetes could have a higher hospital admission rate.

 

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What is a Shoulder Labral Repair?

By  aenriquez  published  November 8, 2017

Shoulder Labral repairThis injury is common in the news as it keeps professionals athletes out of action for a long time. In 2017 Hyun-jin Ryu of the Dodgers, Andrew Luck of the Indianapolis Colts and Jimmy Nelson of the Milwaukee Brewers all spent extended periods of time watching from the sidelines as a result of a shoulder labral tear. But it’s not just professional athletes that are sidelined by the injury and many people need to undergo what is known as Arthroscopic Labral Repair of the Shoulder or SLAP for short.

Many people suffer from shoulder pain, either brought on suddenly by falling on the shoulder or an outstretched hand or slowly and over time by repetitive strain. Many of these injuries are painful because they cause damage to the labrum of the shoulder joint. The labrum is a portion of soft and fibrous tissue that sits in the glenoid (this is the area of the shoulder joint that joins the bone of the upper arm called the humerus with the shoulder blade and the collarbone). This labrum has a number of functions. Firstly, it allows the joint to move freely and easily without the burns rubbing together (which can be painful). It also acts as a sponge, absorbing shocks taken to the joint. Patients with damage the labrum experience pain when lifting the shoulder and they often have a decrease in the range of movement they are able to achieve. This can be very disabling as the shoulder joint is in constant use in day to day life.

How are should labral tears repaired?

This type of injury often requires surgery to fully recover. The surgery is done arthroscopically to reduce the risk of infection and to provide a faster healing time. Arthroscopic surgery refers to a procedure that is done with a tiny camera instead of opening the entire joint up. This means a much smaller cut is made into the shoulder joint and allows healing to occur a lot faster. The surgeon will then repair the shoulder using small instruments and the small camera inside the shoulder.

After the surgery is complete the shoulder will need to be placed in a sling so it can heal for three-six weeks. During this time the patient is told to perform a number of passive exercises (meaning they get somebody else to move their arm and do not do it under their own power). After the sling is removed the patient will be told to do a number of exercises every day to restore proper muscle power and tone. This is done before the patient returns to strenuous activities like sports.

In some individuals who play sports at a high level the repair is unsuccessful and they may experience some pain or loss of performance for years after. However, on a day to day activities carried out by most patients, an Arthroscopic Labrum repair of the shoulder is a highly successful procedure.

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Corticosteroid Shoulder Injection for Shoulder Pain

By  aenriquez  published  September 6, 2017

Shoulder Injection - Posterior ApproachShoulder pain affects thousands of U.S. adults. According to clinical studies, shoulder pain affects 4% of the general population, and 1% of people age 45 years and older consult their family doctor each year with a new presentation of shoulder pain. Many individuals suffer from mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the shoulder. While pain medicine and physical therapy may work for some, others suffer with long-term, recurring shoulder discomfort. A shoulder injection may be necessary to relieve the pain associated with many types of shoulder arthritis.

If pain medication does not provide relief, the pain management specialist may recommend an injection of medicine directly into the shoulder joint. Orthopedic and rheumatologic specialists often use ultrasound guidance to assure the medication goes directly into the joint. Injections for shoulder pain are safe and effective and offer longer pain relief than conservative measures.

Corticosteroid Injection for Shoulder Pain

Many shoulder conditions produce an inflammatory effect that leads to pain. Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications that are injected into the shoulder joint. A corticosteroid will reduce inflammation, which is the body’s immune response. Inflammation leads to swelling, redness, warmth, and pain. Before the injection, the doctor will administer an anesthetic, either locally or into the skin. After numbing the area, the corticosteroid agent is injected directly into the joint.

The corticosteroid solution starts to work after 2-3 days. An anesthetic, such as bupivacaine or lidocaine, is added into the solution to offer immediate pain relief. For some people, a corticosteroid shoulder injection for pain can offer several months of pain relief. Doctors recommend no more than 3 corticosteroid injections into the shoulder joint during a time-span of 3-5 years.

Hyaluronic Acid Shoulder Injection

The shoulder joint contains a gel-like lubricating substance known as synovial fluid. Over time, and with age, the joint becomes depleted of this fluid. Synovial fluid cushions and lubricates the joint. Hyaluronic acid is a component of this fluid. A medication produced in the laboratory, hyaluronic acid, is now used to replace this lost fluid. Hyaluronic acid injections can increase the joint fluid’s viscosity, improving the gliding motion, and relieving symptoms of arthritis.

With chronic shoulder pain, the pain management specialist may recommend an injection of hyaluronic acid. The injection involves placing the medication into the joint under ultrasound guidance. After the injection, the joint may be tender for 24-76 hours, and maximum effects are noticed in 2-3 weeks. One hyaluronic acid shoulder joint injection can provide beneficial for up to 12 months.

Platelet-Rich Plasma for Chronic Shoulder Pain

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a solution of the patient’s own blood components that is injected into a joint. The patient first has his/her blood drawn. The nurse processes the blood in the laboratory, where the platelets are separated from other blood components. The platelet solution is then injected into the painful shoulder joint using x-ray (real-time) guidance. For shoulder pain, the results are usually felt within 2 weeks, and benefits may last for up to a year.

In a recent study involving joint degeneration from osteoarthritis, researchers evaluated the safety and effectiveness of PRP joint injections. They found that PRP injections were beneficial for people with mild osteoarthritis, but only were somewhat effective for moderate arthritis. Because the patient goes through a mild exacerbation period after the injection, the shoulder joint may be tender for up to a week.

Resources

Jang SJ, Kim JD, and Cha SS (2013). Platelet-rich plasma injections as an effective treatment for early osteoarthritis. Eur J of Orth Surg & Traum, 23(5), 573-580.

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